Image

Following Dr NICOLA SCAFETTA

Dr Nicola Scafetta

was my first connection and inspiration for cycle research and analysis
Dr scafetta photo
A master at his work!! Prolific researcher and defender of solar system dynamics and the earths climate
I should have stared this post ages ago!!

His home page
https://www.docenti.unina.it/ricerca/visualizzaPubblicazioni.do?idDocente=4e49434f4c4153434146455454415343464e434c36395432364437303855&nomeDocente=NICOLA&cognomeDocente=SCAFETTA

CLICK ON THE TITLE TOLOAD ALL FURTHER ENTRIES AT THE BASE OF THIS PAGE

Dr Scafetta reconciles the earths climate to solar system dynamics and maybe a tad of AGW
I hope to summarize all of these in the future in the comments section below
but for now some links

Here is a taste of some of his recent work
—————————————————————

2014..
The complex planetary synchronization structure of the solar system

N. Scafetta
http://www.pattern-recogn-phys.net/2/1/2014/prp-2-1-2014.html
Downloaded from the pdf
http://www.pattern-recogn-phys.net/2/1/2014/prp-2-1-2014.pdf
scafeta basic schwabe re planet harmonics
planet synchronisation

EXTRACTS…(I have extracted information for my interest and is not in order/sequence)

The complex planetary synchronization structure of the solar system

N. Scafetta 2014
http://www.pattern-recogn-phys.net/2/1/2014/prp-2-1-2014.html
—————————————————————-
From 1596 to 1619 Kepler formulated preliminary mathematical relations of approximate commensurabilities among the planets, which were later re- formulated in the Titius–Bode rule (1766–1772), which successfully predicted the orbital position of Ceres and Uranus.
..
(1) the planetary orbital periods can be approximately deduced from a simple system of resonant frequencies;

(2) the solar system oscillates with a specific set of gravitational frequencies, and many of them (e.g., within the range between 3yr and 100yr) can be approximately con- structed as harmonics of a base period of ∼178.38yr; and
(3) solar and climate records are also characterized by planetary harmonics from the monthly to the millennial timescales.
The general conclusion is that the solar system works as a resonator characterized by a specific harmonic planetary structure that also synchronizes the Sun’s activity and the Earth’s climate.
—————–
https://picasaweb.google.com/110600540172511797362/SOLARSYSTEMAndClimate#6042906737291319810

In fact, as Fig. 1b shows, in one synodic period Earth revolves 1.59867 times around the Sun, while Venus rotates on its own axis 2.40277 times in the opposite direction.
The sum of the fractional part of the two numbers is almost exactly 1 (∼1.00144). Thus, not only is Earth almost synchronized with Venus in a 8 : 13 or- bital resonance and in a 8 : 5 synodic resonance

the 27.3 days sidereal orbital period of the Moon around Earth appears well synchronized with the 27.3 days period of the Carrington rotation of the Sun,as seen from the Earth, which determines a main electromagnetic oscillation of the heliospheric current sheet in a Parker spiral.

The collective synchronization among all celestial bodies in our solar system indicates that they interact energetically with each other and have reached a quasi-synchronized dynamical state.

As discovered by Christian Huygens in the 17th century, entrainment or synchronization between coupled oscillators requires very little energy exchange if enough time is allowed.

Huygens patented the first pendulum clock and first noted that, if hung on the same wall, after a while, pendulum clocks synchronize to each other due to the weak physical coupling induced by small harmonic vibrations propagating in the wall (Pikovsky, 2001).

.. the Earth’s gravity or some other planetary mechanism has synchronized the rotation of Venus with Earth, the planets could have synchronized the internal dynamics of the Sun, and therefore they could be modulating solar activity.

Thus, the Earth’s climate could be modulated by a complex harmonic forcing consisting of
(1) lunar tidal oscilla- tions acting mostly in the ocean;
(2) planetary-induced so- lar luminosity and electromagnetic oscillations modulating mostly the cloud cover, and therefore the Earth’s albedo; and
(3) a gravitational synchronization with the Moon and other planets of the solar system modulating, for example, the Earth’s orbital trajectory and its length of day (cf. Mörner, 2013).

The planetary rhythm of the Titius–Bode rule
Titius (1766) and later Bode (1772) noted that the semi-major axes an of the planets of the solar system are function of the planetary sequence number n. Adding 4 to the series 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192 and 384 and
dividing the result by 10 gives a series that approximately reproduces the semi-major axis length of the planets in astronomical units (1AU = Sun– Earth average distance).

4 The asteroid belt “mirror” symmetry rule
———————————————–
A curious mathematical relationship linking the four terrestrial inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) and the four giant gaseous outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune) exists (Geddes and King-Hele, 1983). The semi-major axes of these eight planets appear to reflect about the asteroid belt. This mirror symmetry associates Mercury with Neptune, Venus with Uranus, Earth with Saturn and Mars with Jupiter.

Me×Ea Ve×Ma ≈ Ju×Ur Sa×Ne

These relations relate the four inner and the four outer planets of the solar system.
Even if the Geddes and King-Hele rule is not perfect, it does suggest the existence of a specific ordered structure in the planetary system where the asteroid belt region acts as a kind of mirroring boundary condition between the inner and outer regions of the solar system.

5 The matrix of planetary resonances
—————————————-
Molchanov (1968, 1969a) showed that the periods of the planets could be approximately predicted with a set of sim- ple linear equations based on integer coefficients describing the mutual planetary resonances.
The gravitational harmonics of the solar system
———————————————————–
Several spectral peaks can be recognized, such as
-the ∼1.092yr period of the Earth–Jupiter conjunctions;
-the ∼9.93 and ∼19.86yr periods of the Jupiter–Saturn spring (half synodic) and synodic cycles,
respectively;
-the ∼11.86, ∼29.5, ∼84 and ∼165yr orbital period of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune,
respectively;
– the ∼61yr cycle of the tidal beat between Jupiter and Saturn;
and
– the periods corresponding to the synodic cycle between Jupiter and Neptune (∼12.8yr), Jupiter and Uranus (∼13.8yr), Saturn and Nep- tune (∼35.8yr), Saturn and Uranus (∼45.3), and Uranus and Neptune (∼171.4yr),
as well as many other cycles including the spring (half-synodic) periods.

Additional spectra peaks at ∼200–220, ∼571, ∼928 and ∼4200yr are also observed.

Clustered frequencies are typically observed. For example, the ranges 42–48yr, 54–70yr, 82–100yr (Gleissberg cycle) and 150–230yr (Suess–de Vries cycle) are clearly observed in Fig. 4 and are also found among typical main solar activity and aurora cycle frequencies (Ogurtsov et al., 2002; Scafetta and Willson, 2013a).

https://picasaweb.google.com/110600540172511797362/SOLARSYSTEMAndClimate#6042929093474072546

7 The planetary synchronization and modulation of the ∼11yr solar cycle
———————————————————————————————
Hung (2007) also reported that 25 of the 38 largest known solar flares were observed to start when one or more tide- producing planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Jupiter) were either nearly above the event positions (less than 10 deg. lon- gitude) or at the opposing side of the Sun.

The first model relating the 11yr solar cycle to the con- figuration of Venus, Earth and Jupiter was proposed by Bendandi (1931); later Bollinger (1952), Hung (2007) and others developed equivalent models.

It was observed that Venus, Earth and Jupiter are the three major tidal planets (e.g., Scafetta, 2012c).

By taking into account the combined alignment of Venus, Earth and Jupiter, it is easy to demonstrate that the gravitational configuration of the three planets repeats every 22.14 yr

Moreover, because the configurations Ea–Ve–Sun–Ju and Sun–Ve–Ea–Ju are equivalent about the tidal potential, the tidal cycle presents a recurrence of half of the above value (i.e., a period of 11.07yr). This is the average solar cycle length observed since 1750 (e.g., Scafetta, 2012b).

Figure 5 shows that a measure based on the most aligned days among Venus, Earth and Jupiter is well correlated, in phase and frequency, with the ∼11yr sunspot cycle: for details about the Venus–Earth–Jupiter 11.07yr cycle see Battistini (2011, Bendandi’s model), Bollinger (1952), Hung (2007), Scafetta (2012c), Salvador (2013), Wilson (2013a) and Tattersall (2013).

The main tides generated by Jupiter and Saturn on the Sun are characterized by two beating oscillations: the tidal oscillation associated with the orbital period of Jupiter (∼11.86yr period) and the spring tidal oscilla tion of Jupiter and Saturn (∼9.93yr period)

(Brown, 1900; Scafetta, 2012c). Scafetta (2012b, c) used de tailed spectral analysis of the sunspot monthly record since 1749 and showed that the ∼11yr solar cycle is constrained by the presence of two spectral peaks close to the two theoretical tidal periods deduced from the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn (see Fig. 6). These two frequencies modulate the main central cycle at ∼10.87yr period.

The beat generated by the superposition of the three harmonics is characterized by four frequencies at about 61, 115, 130, and 983yr periods that are typically observed in solar records (e.g., Ogurtsov et al., 2002; Scafetta, 2012b). Scafetta (2012b) proposed a harmonic model for solar variability based on three frequencies at periods of ∼9.93, ∼10.87 and ∼11.86yr.

Scafetta’s (2012b) three- frequency solar model forecasts that the Sun will experience another moderate grand minimum during the following decades and will return to a grand maximum Hemisphere covering the last 2000yr; and (4) the ∼59– 63yr oscillation observed in the temperature record since 1850 and other features. Scafetta’s (2012b) three- frequency solar model forecasts that the Sun will ex- perience another moderate grand minimum during the following decades and will return to a grand maximum
in the 2060s similar to the grand maximum experienced in the 2000s (see Fig. 7b).

When these harmonics interfere destructively the Sun enters into a prolonged grand minimum; when they in terfere constructively the Sun experiences a grand maximum.

The proposed semi-empirical and empirical harmonic so- lar models agree about the fact that the Sun is entering into a period of grand minimum. Indeed, the latest sunspot cy- cles #19–24 are closely correlated to the sunspot cycles #1– 5 immediately preceding the Dalton Minimum (1790–1830)

——————————————————————————————-

——————————————————————————————–

2014
Nicola Scafetta: Global temperatures and sunspot numbers. Are they related? Yes, but non linearly

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378437114005226

scafeta 2014 global temop AND SUN SPOTS
” (B) Detail the semi-empirical astronomical model proposed by Scafetta [37]. The red curve shows the original global surface temperature record published in Scafetta [37]. The blue curve shows the same global surface temperature updated to the most current available month. The back curve within the cyan area is the semi-empirical astronomical model forecast (since 2000) that clearly outperforms the IPCC 2007 CMIP3 general circulation model projections (green area). The yellow curve is the harmonic component alone without the anthropogenic component. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)”

\Discussed here
http://tallbloke.wordpress.com/2014/07/28/nicola-scafetta-global-temperatures-and-sunspot-numbers-are-they-related-yes-but-non-linearly/comment-page-1/#comment-84875
———————————————————————————————–

Advertisements

7 comments on “Following Dr NICOLA SCAFETTA

  1. Yes, a man to be respected, who has the courage of his convictions and the integrity to follow where ever they lead, as well as the ability to explain what it all means.

  2. scafetta 2014
    ————————
    2014 Journal Articles Scafetta N. Discussion on the spectral coherence between planetary, solar and climate oscillations: a reply to some critiques

    Global temperatures and sunspot numbers. Are they related? Yes, but non linearly. A reply to Gil-Alana et al. (2014)

    https://www.docenti.unina.it/ricerca/visualizzaPubblicazioni.do?idDocente=4e49434f4c4153434146455454415343464e434c36395432364437303855&nomeDocente=NICOLA&cognomeDocente=SCAFETTA

  3. Dr scafetta has some outstanding research links
    source
    http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0273117716300084/1-s2.0-S0273117716300084-main.pdf?_tid=15bd7efa-1f2a-11e6-acb6-00000aacb35e&acdnat=1463817809_359d11fdc00e9e260488eb8bd630c151

      References

    Abreu, J.A., Beer, J., Ferriz-Mas, A., McCracken, K.G., Steinhilber, F.,
    2012. Is there a planetary influence on solar activity? Astron.
    Astrophys. 548, A88.
    Benesty, J., Chen, J., Huang, Y. 206. Estimation of the coherence function
    with the MVDR approach. In: Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing.
    ICASSP 2006 Proceedings, vol. 3, 500–503.
    Brohan, P., Kennedy, J.J., Harris, I., Tett, S.F.B., Jones, P.D., 2006.
    Uncertainty estimates in regional and global observed temperature
    changes: a new dataset from 1850. J. Geophys. Res. 111, D12106.
    Bucha, V., Jakubcova´, I., Pick, M., 1985. Resonance frequencies in the
    Sun’s motion. Stud. Geophys. Geod. 29, 107–111.
    Callebaut, D.K., de Jager, C., Duhau, S., 2012. The influence of planetary
    attractions on the solar tachocline. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 80, 73–
    78.
    Cameron, R.H., Schu¨ssler, M., 2013. No evidence for planetary influence
    on solar activity. Astron. Astrophys. 557, A83.
    Cauquoin, A., Raisbeck, G.M., Jouzel, J., Bard, E., 2014. (ASTER Team):
    No evidence for planetary influence on solar activity 330 000 years ago.
    Astron. Astrophys. 561, A132.
    Charva´tova´, I., 2009. Long-term predictive assessments of solar and
    geomagnetic activities made on the basis of the close similarity between
    the solar inertial motions in the intervals 1840–1905 and 1980–2045.
    New Astron. 14, 25–30.
    Chylek, P., Folland, C.K., Dijkstra, H.A., Lesins, G., Dubey, M.K., 2011.
    Icecore data evidence for a prominent near 20 year time-scale of the
    Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L13704.
    Cionco, R.G., Soon, W., 2015. A phenomenological study of the timing of
    solar activity minima of the last millennium through a physical
    modeling of the Sun-Planets. New Astron. 34, 164–171.
    Davis, J.C., Bohling, G., 2001. The search for patterns in ice-core
    temperature curves. In: Gerhard, L.C., Harrison, W.E., Hanson, B.M.
    (Eds.) Geological Perspectives of Global Climate Change, pp. 213–229.
    Holm, S., 2014a. On the alleged coherence between the global temperature
    and the Sun’s movement. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 110–111, 23–27.
    Holm, S., 2014b. Corrigendum to on the alleged coherence between the
    global temperature and the sun’s movement. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys.
    119, 230–231.
    Holm, S., 2015. Prudence in estimating coherence between planetary, solar
    and climate oscillations. Astrophys. Space Sci. 357 (106), 1–8.
    Hongwei, W. 2009. Evaluation of various window functions using multiinstrument.
    Virtins Technology. Available at .
    Hoyt, D.V., Schatten, K.H., 1997. The Role of the Sun in the Climate
    Change. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.
    Hung, C.-C. 2007. Apparent relations between solar activity and solar
    tides caused by the planets. NASA report/TM-2007-214817. Available
    at .
    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2013. Climate
    Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis: Fifth Assessment Report.
    Available at .
    Jakubcova´, I., Pick, M., 1986. The planetary system and solar-terrestrial
    phenomena. Stud. Geophys. Geod. 30, 224–235.
    Jose, P.D., 1965. Sun’s motion and sunspots. Astron. J. 70, 193–200.
    Kepler, J. 1606. De Stella Nova in Pede Serpentarii.
    Kepler, J., 1979. 1601. Johannes Kepler’s on the more certain fundamentals
    of astrology, Prague 1601. In: Brackenridge, J.B., Rossi, M.A.
    (Eds.), Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 123(2), pp.
    85–116.
    Kirby, J., 2007. Cosmic rays and clouds. Surv. Geophys. 28, 333–373.
    Klyashtorin, L.B., Borisov, V., Lyubushin, A., 2009. Cyclic changes of
    climate and major commercial stocks of the Barents sea. Marine Biol.
    Res. 5, 4–17.
    Ma’Sar, A., 886. On the great conjunctions. Edited and translated by K.
    Yamamoto, C. Burnett. Brill, 2000.
    McCracken, K.G., Beer, J., Steinhilber, F., Abreu, J., 2013. A phenomenological
    study of the cosmic ray variations over the past 9400
    years, and their implications regarding solar activity and the solar
    dynamo. Sol. Phys. 286, 609–627.
    McCracken, K.G., Beer, J., Steinhilber, F., Abreu, J., 2014. Evidence for
    planetary forcing of the cosmic ray intensity and solar activity
    throughout the past 9400 years. Sol. Phys. 286 (2), 609–627.
    Milankovitch, M., 1930. Mathematische Klimalehre und Astronomische
    Theorie der Klimaschwankungen, Handbuch der Klimatologie, Band
    I, Teil A. Berlin, Verlag von Gebr?der Borntraeger.
    Mo¨rner, N.-A., 2013. Planetary beat and solar–terrestrial responses.
    Pattern Recognit. Phys. 1, 107–116.
    Mo¨rner, N.-A., 2015. The approaching new grand solar minimum and
    little ice age climate conditions. Nat. Sci. 7, 510–518.
    Mo¨rner, N.-A., Tattersall, R., Solheim, J.-E., 2013. Pattern in solar
    variability, their planetary origin and terrestrial impacts. Pattern
    Recognit. Phys. 1, 203–204.
    Poluianov, A., Usoskin, I., 2014. Critical analysis of a hypothesis of
    the planetary tidal influence on solar activity. Sol. Phys. 289, 2333–
    2342.
    Press, W.P., Teukolsky, S.A., Vetterling, W.T., Flannery, B.P., 2007.
    Numerical recipes 3rd edition: the art of scientific computing, third ed.
    Cambridge University Press.
    Ptolemy, C., 1940. 2nd century. Tetrabiblos. In: Robbins, F.E. (Ed.).
    Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA (Loeb Classical Library
    1940).
    Puetz, S.J., Prokoph, A., Borchardt, G., Mason, E.W., 2014. Evidence of
    synchronous, decadal to billion year cycles in geological, genetic, and
    astronomical events. Chaos, Solitons Fractals 62–63, 55–75.
    Qian, W.-H., Lu, B., 2010. Periodic oscillations in millennial global-mean
    temperature and their causes. Chin. Sci. Bull. 55, 4052–4057.
    Rabiner, L.R., Gold, B., 1975. Theory and Application of Digital Signal
    Processing. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
    Roe, G., 2006. In defense of Milankovitch. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33 (24),
    L24703.
    Salvador, R., 2013. A mathematical model of the sunspot cycle for the
    past 1000 yr. Pattern Recognit. Phys. 1, 117–122.
    Santamaria, I., Via, J., 2007. Estimation of the magnitude squared
    coherence spectrum based on reduced- rank canonical coordinates. In:
    IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal
    Processing. ICASSP 2007, pp. III-985 – III-988. DOI: 10.1109/
    ICASSP.2007.366847.
    2134 N. Scafetta / Advances in Space Research 57 (2016) 2121–2135
    Scafetta, N., 2010. Empirical evidence for a celestial origin of the climate
    oscillations and its implications. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 72 (13),
    951–970.
    Scafetta, N., 2012a. Multi-scale harmonic model for solar and climate
    cyclical variation throughout the Holocene based on Jupiter-Saturn
    tidal frequencies plus the 11-year solar dynamo cycle. J. Atmos. Sol.
    Terr. Phys. 80, 296–311.
    Scafetta, N., 2012b. Does the Sun work as a nuclear fusion amplifier of
    planetary tidal forcing? A proposal for a physical mechanism based on
    the mass-luminosity relation. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 81–82, 27–40.
    Scafetta, N., 2013. Discussion on climate oscillations: CMIP5 general
    circulation models versus a semi-empirical harmonic model based on
    astronomical cycles. Earth Sci. Rev. 126, 321–357.
    Scafetta, N., 2014a. Discussion on the spectral coherence between
    planetary, solar and climate oscillations: a reply to some critiques.
    Astrophys. Space Sci. 354, 275–299.
    Scafetta, N., 2014b. Multi-scale dynamical analysis (MSDA) of sea level
    records versus PDO, AMO, and NAO indexes. Clim. Dyn. 43, 175–192.
    Scafetta, N., Willson, R.C., 2013a. Planetary harmonics in the historical
    Hungarian aurora record (1523–1960). Planet. Space Sci. 78, 38–44.
    Scafetta, N., Willson, R.C., 2013b. Empirical evidences for a planetary
    modulation of total solar irradiance and the TSI signature of the 1.09-
    year Earth-Jupiter conjunction cycle. Astrophys. Space Sci. 348 (1),
    25–39.
    Scafetta, N., Humlum, O., Solheim, J.-E., Stordahl, K., 2013. Comment
    on The influence of planetary attractions on the solar tachocline by
    Callebaut, de Jager and Duhau. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 102, 368–
    371.
    Shepherd, J., Zharkov, S.I., Zharkova, V.V., 2014. Prediction of solar
    activity from solar background magnetic field variations in cycles 21–
    23. ApJ 795, 46.
    Solheim, J.-E., 2013. Signals from the planets, via the Sun to the Earth.
    Pattern Recognit. Phys. 1, 177–184.
    Strogatz, S.H., 2009. Exploring complex networks. Nature 410, 268–276.
    Svensmark, H., 1998. Influence of cosmic rays on the Earth’s climate.
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5027–3030.
    Svensmark, H., Bondo, T., Svensmark, J., 2009. Cosmic ray decreases
    affect atmospheric aerosols and clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36,
    L15101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2009GL038429.
    Svensmark, J., Enghoff, M.B., Svensmark, H., 2012. Effects of cosmic ray
    decreases on cloud microphysics. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 12,
    3595–3617.
    Tan, B., Cheng, Z., 2013. The mid-term and long-term solar quasiperiodic
    cycles and the possible relationship with planetary motions. Astrophys.
    Space Sci. 343, 511–521.
    Tattersall, R., 2013. The hum: log-normal distribution and planetary–
    solar resonance. Pattern Recognit. Phys. 1, 185–198. http://dx.doi.org/
    10.5194/prp-1-185-2013.
    Temple, R., 1998. The sirius mystery (Destiny Books), Appendix 3, Why
    Sixty Years? .
    Tinsley, B.A., 2008. The global atmospheric electric circuit and its effects
    on cloud microphysics. Rep. Progress Phys. 71, 066801.
    Traversi, R., Usoskin, I., Solanki, S., Becagli, S., Frezzotti, M., Severi, M.,
    Stenni, B., Udisti, R., 2012. Nitrate in polar ice: a new tracer of solar
    variability. Sol. Phys. 280 (1), 237.
    Wang, Z., Wu, D., Song, X., Chen, X., Nicholls, S., 2012. Sun-Moon
    gravitation-induced wave characteristics and climate variation. J.
    Geophys. Res. 117, D07102.
    Welch, P.D., 1967. The use of fast fourier transform for the estimation of
    power spectra: a method based on time averaging over short, modified
    Periodograms. In: IEEE Transactions on Audio and Electroacoustics.
    AU-15, pp. 70–73.
    Wilson, I.R.G., 2013. The Venus–Earth–Jupiter spin–orbit coupling
    model. Pattern Recognit. Phys. 1, 147–158.
    Wolf, R., 1859. Extract of a letter to Mr. Carrington. Mon. Not. R.
    Astron. Soc. 19, 85–86.
    Wolff, C.L., Patrone, P.N., 2010. A new way that planets can affect the
    Sun. Sol. Phys. 266, 227–246.
    Wyatt, M., Curry, J., 2014. Role of Eurasian Arctic shelf sea ice in a
    secularly varying hemispheric climate signal during the twentieth
    century. Clim. Dyn. 42, 2763–2782

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s