The ices of Greenland and Antarctica bear the fingerprints of a monster: a gigantic volcanic eruption in 539 or 540 A.D. that killed tens of thousands and helped trigger one of the worst periods of global cooling in the last 2,000 years. Now, after years of searching, a team of scientists has finally tracked down the source of the eruption.
The team’s work, published in Quaternary Science Reviews, lays out new evidence that ties the natural disaster toIlopango, a now-dormant volcanoin El Salvador. Researchers estimate that in its sixth-century eruption, Ilopango expelled the equivalent of 10.5 cubic miles of dense rock, making it one of the biggest volcanic events on Earth in the last 7,000 years. The blast was more than a hundred times bigger than the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption and several times larger than the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo. It dealt the local Maya settlements a blow that forever altered their trajector……
Dull’s team also revised their estimate of Ilopango’s size, taking into account the thickness and spread of Tierra Blanca Joven deposits. They say that Ilopango may have even dwarfed the 1815 Tambora eruption, a huge volcanic event that ushered in “a year without a summer” because of the global cooling it caused. Ilopango likely launched up to a million tons of sulfur miles into the sky, high enough for stratospheric winds to spread the aerosols worldwide and trigger global cooling.…..
EXTRACT…..“The sun is entering one of the deepest Solar Minima of the Space Age,” wrote Dr Tony Phillips just six weeks ago, on 27 Sep 2018.
Sunspots have been absent for most of 2018 and Earth’s upper atmosphere is responding, says Phillips, editor of spaceweather.com.
Data from NASA’s TIMED satellite show that the thermosphere (the uppermost layer of air around our planet) is cooling and shrinking, literally decreasing the radius of the atmosphere.
To help track the latest developments, Martin Mlynczak of NASA’s Langley Research Center and his colleagues recently introduced the “Thermosphere Climate Index.”
The Thermosphere Climate Index (TCI) tells how much heat nitric oxide (NO) molecules are dumping into space. During Solar Maximum, TCI is high (meaning “Hot”); during Solar Minimum, it is low (meaning “Cold”).
“Right now, it is very low indeed … 10 times smaller than we see during more active phases of the solar cycle,” says Mlynczak”
XMETMAN says ” There is such a black art into figuring out the relative strengths of an El Niño or La Niña event, that it’s with fear and trepidation that I say that the current 2015-16 El Niño cycle is the second strongest in the records which started in 1950″
The mean temperature for December was 9.67°C which was a remarkable +5.02°C above the 1961-1990 long-term average for the month. It was 1.58°C warmer than the last warmest December of 1934 a record that lasted for over 80 years
XMETMAN SAYS “And here I am talking about the daily Central England Temperature [CET] that began in 1878. The maximum temperature for yesterday was astonishing 13.7°C which was +0.8°C higher than the record set 115 years earlier in 1900. “
The forecast seems to have lost its Hockey stick.. Is anyone surprised?
“Figure 3: Observed (black, from Hadley Centre, GISS and NCDC) and predicted (blue) global average annual surface temperature difference relative to 1981-2010. Previous predictions starting from November 1960, 1965,… 2005 are shown in red, and 22 model simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5), that have not been initialised with observations, are shown in green. In all cases, the shading represents the probable range, such that the observations are expected to lie within the shading 90% of the time. The most recent forecast (blue) starts from November 2014. All data are rolling 12-month mean values. The gap between the black curves and blue shading arises because the last observed value represents the period November 2013 to October 2014 whereas the first forecast period is November 2014 to October 2015.” READ ON HERE http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/research/climate/seasonal-to-decadal/long-range/decadal-fc