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DEFINITION from the World Meteorological organisation ( WMO)
“In 1971-72, Roland Madden and Paul Julian reported that there was a roughly periodic nature to tropical convection.
Over the Indian and Pacific Oceans, in particular, tropical convection was often active for about a week or so and then there was a relatively quiet period of around a month.
The active regions of convection travel from west to east, close to the equator, with a period of roughly 30-60 days.
Much of the rainfall in the tropics occurs during the active convection phases of this cycle, many tropical cyclones are also formed.
This cycle is now known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) or Intra-seasonal Oscillation.
The MJO is at its strongest from September to May.
Moreover, if one of these bouts of activity hits the western Pacific just as an El Niño event is ready to hatch, it can stimulate a rapid development of the El Niño……”